Did you know that peanuts are the leading cause of food allergies in children in the United States? Approximately 2.5% of kids have a peanut allergy, accounting for a significant portion of all childhood food allergy cases. While some children may outgrow their allergy, a staggering 80% of cases persist throughout life. Peanuts pose a particular risk as they are closely associated with anaphylaxis, a life-threatening allergic reaction that can occur within seconds or minutes of exposure. Recognizing the signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction and responding promptly is crucial. In this blog post, we will explore how to identify the onset of an allergic reaction, discuss common methods of diagnosing and treating peanut allergies. Plus we’ll review valuable insights on preventing and managing this condition.

Signs and Symptoms

Those with a peanut allergy commonly experience a range of symptoms associated with an allergic reaction. They are as follows.

  • Wheezing
  • Coughing
  • Stomach cramps
  • Vomiting
  • Throat tightness
  • Sneezing
  • Diarrhea
  • Swelling
  • Hoarseness
  • Hives
  • Swelling
  • Indigestion

Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening reaction characterized by difficulty breathing or breathing very fast, a sudden drop in blood pressure, pale skin or blue lips, dizziness, swelling in the throat, and fainting. This condition must be treated immediately. Go directly to the emergency room and use epinephrine medication commonly administered through an auto-injector if available. Individuals aware of their allergies should carry one on them.

Diagnosis of Peanut Allergies

If you suspect that your child may have a peanut allergy, there are several approaches that healthcare providers may take to reach a diagnosis. Due to the variation in symptoms from person to person and the inconsistency of symptoms within the same individual, the diagnostic process can be complex. It is advisable to schedule an appointment with an allergist if you suspect an allergy or have experienced a frequent allergic reaction. Keeping a detailed food diary can also help identify an allergy, particularly when symptoms are milder. Remember to record the foods consumed, the timing of consumption, and any accompanying symptoms, noting the time they started.

When consulting an allergist, you can anticipate their recommendation for either a skin or blood test to aid in determining the presence of an allergy. In some cases, they may suggest an oral food challenge. This involves gradually consuming small amounts of the suspected allergen over time, under the supervision of the provider in their office, where emergency equipment and medication are readily available.

Treatment of Peanut Allergies

A severe allergic reaction is characterized by symptoms such as hives, vomiting, difficulty breathing, or significant swelling of the throat. If you experience any of these symptoms it is crucial to seek immediate medical treatment. If possible, administer an epinephrine auto-injector before proceeding to the emergency room. Contact 911 or arrange for someone else to drive you, as severe symptoms like dizziness, fainting, or confusion may compromise your ability to operate a vehicle. It’s important to note that even if the initial symptoms subside, a subsequent wave of serious symptoms can still manifest.

When experiencing mild allergic reaction symptoms such as mildly swollen and itchy skin, nasal congestion, sneezing, itchy and watery eyes, or localized hives, immediate medical attention may not be necessary. Administer an antihistamine and closely monitor your child until the symptoms subside. If your child continues to experience recurrent episodes of mild allergic reactions, it is advisable to consult a doctor or consider maintaining a food diary to identify potential triggers.

Prevention and Management


Preventing an Allergic Reaction

For individuals with peanut allergies, taking every possible measure to avoid consuming peanut products is crucial. In the United States, manufacturers are mandated to clearly indicate whether their products contain peanuts. Look for labels that provide information such as “May contain peanuts” or “Produced on shared equipment with tree nuts or peanuts”. It’s worth noting that certain popular foods and products are more likely to contain peanuts or be cross-contaminated. These products include cookies, baked goods, candy, ice cream, as well as Asian and African cuisine, particularly Thai, Chinese, and Indian dishes, along with sauces. When dining out, inform the restaurant staff about your peanut allergy and inquire about the presence of any peanut products in their menu offerings.

Managing Peanut Allergies

Individuals who experience severe allergic reactions may be prescribed an epinephrine auto-injector to have on hand at all times. If you fall into this category, ensure that you carry your epinephrine auto-injector with you, whether in a purse, backpack, or pocket—anywhere that allows for easy access. Proximity is key, as you will require immediate access to it in the event of a reaction. Additionally, your doctor will collaborate with you to develop an action plan, providing clear instructions on what steps to take in the event of a severe reaction.

In conclusion, navigating the challenges of peanut allergies requires awareness and preparedness. Recognizing the signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as anaphylaxis, is crucial for prompt intervention. Diagnosis often involves a combination of medical evaluation, allergen testing, and professional guidance. To prevent reactions, individuals must be diligent in reading labels, identifying potential sources of peanuts, and communicating their allergy to others, particularly when dining out. Equally important is the management of peanut allergies, which may involve carrying an epinephrine auto-injector and having a personalized action plan. By staying informed, taking preventive measures, and working closely with healthcare professionals, individuals with peanut allergies can lead safe and fulfilling lives, free from the constant worry of potential allergic reactions.

Sources: Nemours, American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology